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If a website is available on two different domains, ex: domain1.com and domain2.com and the content of domain2.com differs slightly from that of domain1.com, how can I instruct Google to complete ignore domain2.com?

Via robots.txt?

Also, will domain1.com be affected in a negative way?

I ask because some pages of my website should not be visible to certain type of users and since there is no login/registration to differentiate users, I was thinking of having the same website on two different domains and using the domain to understand what to show and hide.

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You can have the same website on multiple domains if that is what you need to do.

If so, the best method for instructing Google on how to handle the duplication is through:

<link rel="canonical" href="http://example.com/quality-wrenches.htm"/>

You will have to set the href of the canonical tag to the exact address of each page on your website.

If this is too complicated and you're unsure of how to do it manually, you could also add the NOINDEX NOFOLLOW tag to your <head> tag. This method will prevent Google from adding your duplicate domain to its search results, and will prevent the bot from crawling links on that domain.

The canonical tag is likely preferred to the second method, but both should prevent duplicate results from displaying in search.

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