There is no specified timeframe in which Google, or any search engine, will start to show more of your URL's in the SERPs. (That said, Bing is usually easier to convince.) The initial crawl alone will take up to several days. The problem is that the algorithms may not always deem all of your sitemap pages worthy of being listed.
You can try resubmitting your XML sitemap a few times. With one client, I got the site fully indexed only after three sitemap submissions. That said, in asking Google to reevaluate your site, it can potentially work against you too, if it decides that your content isn't as good as it initially thought.
Google won't index pages it sees as thin or unoriginal. If you have several pages where the header and footer are the main content areas, and the body of the content is very thin, this sort of page will be viewed as low quality or duplicate content.
You can take the following steps to troubleshoot:
- Is your content good enough to index? If not, flesh out those pages.
- Are your title tags up to SEO standards? Do you have any meta tags, such as noindex or nofollow, on any of those pages that would prevent indexation?
- Are you blocking any sitemap URL's in your robots.txt?
- Are any of your pages really slow, or not mobile friendly?
After making some changes, resubmit the sitemap and see what happens.
You can look for specific URL's using combined search operators, such as: site:example.com inurl:sample-page. Here's a great resource for that type of fun: https://moz.com/blog/mastering-google-search-operators-in-67-steps
In your GSC, you can see, in your sitemap area, how many pages were submitted vs how many were indexed. That means, whatever wasn't indexed, was ruled out by the search engine. When you run your search queries using the operators, you may see way more pages than what Google said was indexed. That means you should go deep into the SERPs and check for duplicate content, indexed taxonomy nodes, anything that you can take action on.
If you see no improvement, wait a few weeks or months. Try to build more backlinks from reputable sources. Try to get your content shared on social media. Publish more content, if possible. Convince Google that the sitemap pages you're submitting are worthy of living in the index. How long that takes depends on your marketing strategy.