I think you should be fine. Anchor tags aren't always used with href attributes anyway. You can use the name attribute, which is used when linking to different parts of the page.
<a name="sectionName">Page Section</a>
There are a few big factors that you didn't mention:
External links to the pages. External links to specific pages can help a lot. Especially if the anchor text of the links contains some of the keywords. (This is why link building is such an important SEO activity. BUT it needs to be undertaken with care so that Google doesn't penalize spammy links.)
I don't think it's 'correct' to think or optimize for content length.
Straight from the horse's mouth: https://support.google.com/webmasters/answer/7451184?hl=en:
Provide an appropriate amount of content for your subject
Creating high quality content takes a significant amount of at least one of the following: time, effort, expertise, and talent/...
The answer to your general question, is that it depends on the context.
In my experience doing SEO, for over 10 years, it used to be the case that longer word count was better (not so much that low word count is hurtful, although this is debatable). However, Google's algorithms change and adjust over time to adapt to user behavior, it's ultimate goal ...
I'm seeing some evidence that Google likes text heavy pages even for simple queries right now. You might get better rankings with longer answers and filler text these days.
One example is recipes. Pretty much any recipe I find on Google now has 3 pages of text before the actual recipe talking about how much Aunt Marge liked it at Thanksgiving four years ...
The worst that can happened is that google will consider that single page not worth to be indexed.
If your website has 1000 "good pages" and 50 "poor" pages it will not affect the website.
If your website has 50 "good pages" and 100 "poor" pages it can be affected.
Why don't you simply group the answers by topic, so each page will contains maybe 5 or 10 ...