I think there's a more basic aspect of name resolution that's being missed here: Your computer doesn't need to know any DNS names in order to perform lookups. A computer's DNS servers are always defined by IP address.
In a consumer setting, that usually means the DNS server addresses are retrieved from a DHCP server along with the IP address, netmask, and ...
Your understanding is correct on the whole (as a minor point of clarification, it's not your computer that will recursively resolve DNS records, it's typically your ISP.)
The "missing piece" you're looking for is the glue record, which is a DNS record specifically designed to fix that circular reference.
Glue records are DNS records created at the ...
That is achieved through what it's called a "glue record".
The DNS server has both the NS and the corresponding A (and/or AAAA for IPv6) records for the NS entries and serve them "glued" to the NS response.
So even if you only ask for the NS records, the DNS would respond with both the NS servers and their IP addresses.