Just search as a user would do. Put yourself in a typical searcher's shoes and try to find what might make them skip over to other results over yours. There could be a variety of reasons including but not limited to:
Your title is not reflecting the searcher's intent accurately.
The title is too long and cut off by Search Engines, thus making it less clear ...
There could be several reasons for this.
It could mean that your website is ranking for searches that are not relevant to your actual website content, or at least to your content's representation in the SERPs. When the user looks at your title, description, URL, or rich results, they keep scrolling. This means in time, your rankings for those keywords will ...
If the links are going to error pages on your site, there is no need to do anything about them. Google won't penalize your site in any way for having links to your site with bad anchor text that go to 404 or 410 error pages.
It won't clear out of Google Search Console as long as the other sites are still linking to you, but you can just ignore it there.