They do some kind of redirects that I can't really understand at the moment why they do those ways.
Having worked for sites with product links like this, the redirects have nothing to do with SEO. Because they make money when they are clicked, they have to be accurately tracked. They often have to be tracked by the publisher, the advertiser, and ...
You have the following options (HTML attributes):
rel="sponsored": Mark links that are advertisements or paid placements (commonly called paid links) with the sponsored value.
rel="ugc": Mark user-generated content (UGC) links, such as comments and forum posts, with the ugc value.
rel="nofollow": Use the nofollow value when ...
Google renders pages and waits for a while before taking a snapshot of the page. Last I checked you had about 5 seconds to render what Google would see.
So I suspect this may not get indexed.
You can test this with the url inspection tool or one of Google's testing tools which will show you the rendered html that they may use. Note that timings in the live ...
So obvious it need not be mentioned in fact.
The simple answer is that this is not a human, it is a spider, so it may be caching your data, but that's what Google does anyway.
If you wish to block it from your servers then that is fine.
If you just wish to remove it from your stats, which is the actual issue, then that is fine too.
The size of your favicon must be a multiple of 48 pixels square, for example:
48 x 48 px
96 x 96 px
144 x 144 px
Don't use 16x16 size, Google will resize it automatically.
Define a favicon to show in search results
<link rel="icon" type="image/png" sizes="48x48" href="public/icon/favicon-48x48.png">
Google says in their flexible sampling documentation:
Enclose paywalled content with structured data in order to help Google differentiate paywalled content from the practice of cloaking, where the content served to Googlebot is different from the content served to users.
If you are using structured data to tell how the content is limited for users, then ...
Unless I have misunderstood something, the example in that guide only deals with 1 particular subpage https://example.org/article
Structured data for paywalled content needs to be done on a page-by-page basis, yes.
this way of specifying structure data seems to only apply for actual articles
According to the resource you linked, this structured data is ...
Google can index URLs that it finds this way if it crawls them and finds a page with content ...