Questions tagged [internationalization]

Internationalization is the process of designing and implementing a website with flexibility in how it handles language, text, number formatting, and other details that differ by culture. This makes it cheaper and easier to localize a website to different languages and cultures later.

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118
votes
8answers
30k views

How should I structure my URLs for both SEO and localization?

When I set up a site in multiple languages, how should I set up my URLs for search engines and usability? Let's say my site is www.example.com, and I'm translating into French and Spanish. What is ...
28
votes
11answers
2k views

SEO International Websites usage of sub domains and ccTLD domains

Is it better to have separate country specific domains (which costs more money) or sub domains which define the country, for better SEO? e.g. example.com example.com.au example.co.uk vs example....
22
votes
2answers
34k views

International Targeting “no return tags”

Google Webmaster Tools has added an International Targeting Report to show hreflang errors. There's a section that reports "no return tags" errors with Originating URL & Alternate URL columns. ...
13
votes
2answers
10k views

What countries require a state/province in the mailing address?

I'm creating a form and want to require / hide the state/province field based on the selected country. What countries require a state in the mailing address? For example, the United States does.
11
votes
1answer
10k views

link rel=“alternate”, multiple languages and canonical urls

Context: We've got a website which is available in multiple language versions. However, the content is the same. Each translated version of the site is available on a distinct subdomain. On some ...
11
votes
3answers
4k views

language+region value of the HTML5 lang attribute

I'm working on a website which will offer localized content following the language+region approach as described on this W3.org page (e.g. fr-CA for Canadian French content, and fr-FR for "French ...
10
votes
1answer
788 views

Is using optional URL segments bad for SEO?

I have a multilanguage site with urls like this https://example.org/en/ads/2 https://example.org/es/ads/2 https://example.org/it/ads/2 which serve the site in different languages. My site also ...
8
votes
3answers
811 views

How to tell Google that each subfolder is a different site? Otherwise, Google appends the main site's name to every other subfolder

One of our Korean clients (who would like to remain unamed) has a problem with their section of their website (subfolder). They are part of an international organization. Let's call them "Foobar" for ...
7
votes
2answers
2k views

Is having a landing page for multi-country websites detrimental for search engine ranking?

I have a multi-language / multi-country website which uses a single domain name. The url structure is as follows: country-name.example.com/language/ Ex: ca.example.com/en/ ca.example.com/fr/ uk....
7
votes
2answers
1k views

How to make sure Chinese text is rendered in webpage?

I'm making a webpage that's partly in Chinese. I use the UTF-8 encoding for all text. The page contains some parts that are in Chinese, mixed with western letters. The font I use for western text ...
7
votes
3answers
431 views

How to deal with yet-to-be-translated, placeholder content on a multi-language site?

I'm working on a site where we have many different languages (about 24). When a content piece is authored in English, it is automatically copied to all language sites where it will be later translated ...
6
votes
4answers
347 views

SEO consequences for merging country sites in a .com

I am in the process of refactoring a number of rental portals I've built for a company with locations in Austria, Germany, Switzerland, and the Netherlands. Instead of the current setting of each ...
6
votes
2answers
5k views

SEO implications of having multiple languages available at same URL

I am in the process of translating a set of websites to multiple languages. Would there be any negative implications if I were to serve each different language from identical URLs? I fully intend to ...
6
votes
3answers
1k views

How to handle SEO for brand that has a special character in the name

I am building a website (small online retail store) for a company whose brand name has a special character in it. The name of the brand is actually a legitimate Polish word that has an Ł, which is an ...
6
votes
2answers
89 views

Multi country redirect working with google

I have company.com, us.company.com and ca.company.com, all using the same language, however, displaying different content e.g. pricing, imagery and text I want the site to be displayed in Google as ...
5
votes
4answers
4k views

How can I compile an IP address to country lookup database to make available for free?

How would I go about compiling an accurate database of IP addresses and their related countries to make available as an open source download for any web developer who wants to perform a geographic IP ...
5
votes
3answers
3k views

Redirect based on country

Let's say I have a site that has multiple versions for different countries, e.g.: www.example.com/us www.example.com/uk www.example.com/ca and I want to use IP geolocation to redirect users who go ...
5
votes
3answers
521 views

Hreflang for regions (like states and provinces) within a country

I'm working on a website which has different content depending on the province/state the user is from. Is it valid to add the subdivision code to the hreflang like below? <link rel="alternate" ...
5
votes
2answers
1k views

Should slug (SEO/user friendly URLs) contain only English letters?

Can I create slug with unicode letters since all the major browsers support unicode urls (so it won't be transformed into the utf8 equivalent), or should I always use English letters? For example: If ...
5
votes
1answer
497 views

My site fails to do content negotiation with Googlebot using the Accept-Language header

HTTP offers Content Negotiation (by reacting on the Accept-Language request header) to deliver translated representations of a resource under one URI. In January 2015 Google finally implemented this ...
5
votes
1answer
153 views

Multi-country redirection where US is not the main site and it's SEO implications

We run a custom built e-commerce platform. We started in Canada and our main site was thus built to serve canadian buyers. When we expanded into the US, we added a /us sub-folder as an identifier. We ...
5
votes
1answer
178 views

I18n website and URL prefix iso639

I'm adding i18n to my website. For translated pages I add iso639 code of the language like this: http://example.com/en/mypage.php But I'm curious about language code. Should I use iso639-1 (en) or ...
5
votes
1answer
755 views

Google Transliterator (input tools) is not suggesting words as typed when used on my site

I want a transliterator (Google's) to be embedded in my site. I tried embedding it and I mostly succeeded. It is showing translations, but all of them for a word typed one letter at a time like it ...
4
votes
2answers
778 views

Locale code in route versus in query string for i18n

So I came across a library that helps with adding locale code to the route of your website. eg website.com/en-US/about/ The library claims that one should do it this way because "Google needs ...
4
votes
4answers
356 views

How to use the canonical tag for multiregion websites and duplicate content

We want to use the canonical tag for an multiple region website with the same content. For Example: www.example.com/services.htm www.example.com/uk/services.htm Then if we use the canonical tag on ...
4
votes
2answers
432 views

Is it bad for SEO have the same site on a .gr and a .com with both English and Greek content?

I have a site that shows in two different domains. www.example.gr and www.example.com. Both are from the same setup and and both sites have a Greek and an English version. Is that bad for seo? ...
4
votes
2answers
842 views

Root index.html file of a multi-language website [duplicate]

I have a multi-language website and according to the Google guidelines for multi-language sites, I should keep the two or more versions of my website in two different subfolders, like: www.example....
4
votes
1answer
267 views

Should I transliterate my URL paths?

I looked around and can't find any info on this, I must be searching the wrong terms or something because it must be a common question. If you have non-ASCII characters in your URLs, Firefox and ...
4
votes
2answers
234 views

A domain for each language or a single domain, which is better for SEO?

My project is in 7 languages. For each language, we bought a domain. The project already has some success. Some domains have many visitors from search engines, some not so many. When we launched, ...
4
votes
1answer
69 views

One company two domains for two countries - Google Search

My company has two domains: - www.company.pe (for Peru) - www.company.ar (for Argentina) www.company.com was already taken so i had to buy one domain for each country. These two sites have ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

Will Googlebot have trouble crawling a site if we have such international redirects based on location and cookie?

So, we have an international site with multiple subdomains for each language. We have hreflang markup in place (+ sitemaps), but we also detect where users come from and redirect them to appropriate ...
4
votes
4answers
143 views

How can I view localized versions of my site?

We are adding internationalization to our site. We are getting the client's IP address from the headers and looking it up against the IP2location database to get the client's country. Several of ...
4
votes
1answer
418 views

Tagging different currency pages for multi-currency webshop

I present two selections in my site; one is language (which will change the URL and content) and currency. The currency setting is applied via querystring, like page?curr=EUR, then it'll remember for ...
4
votes
1answer
365 views

Receiving “no return tags (sitemaps)” error in Google Search Console should I add hreflang=“en” to sitemap XML file?

Under my Google Search Console I'm receiving a 'es' - no return tags (sitemaps) error for: Originating URL: /en/about-us/testimonials Alternate URL: /es/about-us/testimonials And I have my sitemap ...
4
votes
2answers
282 views

Special DNS needed to resolve .中国 cc TLD (Simplified Mandarin character TLD)?

I thought I had a good handle on international DNS, which is only even slightly tricky with a handful of differently-regulated countries' TLD's, but .中国 is throwing me for a loop. A Chinese friend ...
4
votes
1answer
676 views

Translate URL query parameters

Just like it is always advisable to translate URL parts in order to internationalize a web site, is there any recommendation (W3C or such) regarding the translation of URL parameters (query strings)? ...
4
votes
2answers
50 views

Indexing internationalized pages

I've noticed that many websites use different URLs for different languages, e.g. de.wikipedia.org. I thought that was the entire purpose of existance for the Accept-Language HTTP header. It would be ...
3
votes
2answers
159 views

Separate URLs for localised content

Should pages which are almost identical, bar a few minor changes for particular locations, share the same URL? I am not talking of pages in different languages, but pages which have minor differences ...
3
votes
2answers
76 views

How reliably does Google determine a user's region, in order to pick the right hreflang option (specifically en-gb vs. en-nz)?

We have a website that serves content for New Zealand and most of the world. The same content is picked up by another subsidiary website and served to the UK, with our permission. We would like ...
3
votes
2answers
121 views

Serve index.html by language and charset (a thing from the past)

In a digital archaeology project I have found a web server directory with files dated from 2001 that had a peculiar collection of index.html files with names ending with two letter codes of different ...
3
votes
2answers
67 views

How can a two language page (about learning a language) be optimized for search engines?

I know that there are lots of docs about multi-languages website, but still cannot find a solution for my problem: I'm building a website to help people to learn Italian. The site contains pages with ...
3
votes
2answers
222 views

Can you use the ccTLD for sub-directories when geotargeting?

I know when targeting a specific country or region the best way to do it with the the ccTLD. But if you choose the sub-directory route, should those sub-directories be named the same way you would use ...
3
votes
2answers
48 views

How will geo-ip redirects affect which geo-targeted pages Google indexes?

We are an Indian company and have an online store. We sell in India as well as abroad. The products are sold at different prices in India and abroad and there are two site versions for Indian prices ...
3
votes
2answers
508 views

Correct hreflang tag for Brazilian Portuguese speakers in the UK

I have a UK site which is translated into Brazilian, i.e. Portuguese (Brazilian) speakers in the UK. Whats the correct hreflang tag for this? https://example.com/gb/pt-br In theory, we are looking ...
3
votes
2answers
356 views

How can I target specific countries with global site under gTLD using sub-directory for each targeted country?

We're building a global platform for a large client who want a range of sites targeting different countries all hosted under a single gTLD, so example.com/uk will be a UK-specific site, example.com/fr ...
3
votes
1answer
36 views

How to treat special bilingual dual view pages for SEO?

I have a site in two languages: domain.com (German) en.domain.com (English) The content is literature. Both sites are in their respective language only, but I want to also offer a dual view, to ...
3
votes
1answer
316 views

International SEO for Same URL

I am having multiple variants of my website for different countries. According to the country(detected from IP address of the user), we were displaying the different content to the users. The same ...
3
votes
1answer
212 views

Internationalisation Hreflang - site traffic destroyed

I have a site that I wish to target three regions: UK, USA & The EU region - the site is entirely in English (for the moment). We have different indexes per region, for example: blah.com/stuff -&...
3
votes
1answer
817 views

Multilanguage Website with language parameters inside URL and HTACCESS redirect

I'm experiencing an issue using the Google webmaster tools. My Website homepage is being redirected to the correct language version according to user's browser language. For example if a user from UK ...
3
votes
3answers
202 views

Duplicate content on same-language region

I'm currently working on a multi-language website. I want to target different regions and each region should have its own site. I currently have two languages for my website: Dutch and English. So I ...

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