The goal is to have a simple WordPress site for company employees to retrieve information that can be sensitive. The site is supposed to be online so it can be access by me from home, but needs to be excluded from every search engine and have a password login. How do I achieve this?
Why not put a
HTTP auth username and password on the site. This is done using .htaccess and .htpasswd files if you want to do it manually and learn something.
Or as with most things WordPress, there is a plugin here: http://www.tech-otaku.com/blogging/securing-wordpress-login-using-http-authentication/.
Visitors will see something like this before they even get to the site.
You can use the wordpress plugins/tools available here, which will only allow those of your visitors who have the password to access your wordpress site. For instance you may use the plugins mentioned below: