If I have a new blog with programming tutorial articles, Is it ok for SEO to have categories like "Web", "Network", "Game",... or It should be like "Web Development", "Network Programming", "Game Development"...?
The time you're spending on this should be spent on creating good content.
Content will have a much much greater effect on your ranking than some category name. Rewriting an article to make it more interesting for the reader will be worth 10 times as much* as this. Keeping your readers interested in your page, making them stay longer and come back should be your main focus.
*Figure of speech, not an actual statistic
If you choose to go with categories like network, web or game then these kind of categories will land in the generic terms of seo. Have relevant categories for your blog.
I think "Web Development", "Network Programming", "Game Development" will work best for your niche.
Do the competitive research to find what others are doing in your industry. You will get good idea about the terms that you can use as your categories.