To answer your first point having reviewed your example site you do not have any indexable content or keywords. To index the content Google needs content to index. As your initial page doesn't have anything except for links Google will not continue down the path of indexing those links as it makes the website appear as not legitimate and a possible blackhat SEO activity to artificially boost SEO based on links with no content.
As for the point you made in comments I have done a check of devdocs.io and they have thousands of records in the Google index so they are most certainly being indexed and searchable though the keywords may be a little tricky as they site appears to be tightly focused on technical manuals for third party frameworks and applications which means those other sites will rank higher.
- Javascipt redirections where treated by Google as authoratative 301 redirects and updated the index appropriately.
- Dynamically inserted content was was crawled and indexed.