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What is the difference between the logo and image properties?

If you go to the Brand schema, you will notice properties for logo and image. Is there any difference between these 2 properties? When would you use both or one over the other? How does/would Google represent them?

Currently I am making use of logo which just represents the logo/image of a brand. But I am not sure when (if needed) to use image if I already use logo? Which is the correct property to use?

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The logo property is a sub-property of the image property. That means that whenever you use logo, you are implicitly also using image.

And logo can currently only be used for a few types (Brand, Organization, Place, Product, Service), while image is defined for Thing, so it can be used everywhere.

It does not necessarily have to make sense to use both properties for a type. Schema.org always lists both, even if there wouldn’t be a situation where using both would make sense.
But there are of course cases where it does make sense, for example for Organization: logo for the organization’s logo, image for a group photo of the organization’s team.

If you have an image "of the item" (that’s how image is defined), decide if it’s the logo of that item. If not, use image, if yes, use logo.

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I'd use it where you have both a logo and a feature image on a page, like this:

Crocs

This page isn't actually marked up like this, but you could set logo for the actual Crocs logo on the right, and image for the banner featuring the product on the left.

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