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I'm using setting the locale for each user by detecting the browser's language header and storing it in a cookie to display my site's content. Users can also select the language and change the locale, the cookie will update accordingly.

tldr; the site path names are all the same but the static content will change based on the value of the cookie.

When someone searches for my site in Japan - for example - I want to go the search engine result to display my site's information in Japanese. Currently google displays results pertaining to my site only in English.

According to this page: https://support.google.com/webmasters/answer/6144055?hl=en&ref_topic=2370587 google does provide locale-aware crawling. But it asks to 'Confirm that your website configuration supports locale-aware crawling'. Currently it seems not to be working for my site. How could I resolve this?

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Googlebot does not use cookies to work out translations, it detects the language on the page and so your content while being accessed by Googlebot from its U.S IP will serve English language content.

Google recommends using different URL's for different language content such as your default site being in English but setting up a different sub domain for your translated content such as fr.domain.com, or using ccTLD's such as www.domain.com, www.domain.com.cn, etc for the translated content but if your implementation doesn't support this then you can add the

<link rel="alternate" hreflang="es" href="http://www.domain.com/es/title.html" />

You can see further information on how to do this in Google's support section at https://support.google.com/webmasters/answer/189077?hl=en

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