I have created a single page landing page while I redesign my website that has sections for popular pages. So the landing page has an events section, location section, contact section etc. How do I temporarily redirect those pages from my old site to the temporary sections without losing any SEO juice on those pages when I want to 301 them to the new pages? I've looked at using "hashbangs(#!)", canonical tags and using pushstate() but none of those seem to solve my issue.
It seems from your question that you are keeping your site content but making a new structure for it. This is fine, and good. But it is not something that should be attempted with tricks.
Rather I would do a most simple 2 step process:
1) Get a robots.txt and "/" disallow your full site (see also the other steps lower) and then in Google Search Console TELL GOOGLE TO REMOVE YOUR FULL SITE from view. 2) When ready to re-index your site do so again in Search Console.
The Remove URLs tool is only a temporary removal. To remove content or a URL from Google search permanently you must take one or more of the following additional actions:
Remove or update the actual content from your site (images, pages, directories) and make sure that your web server returns either a 404 (Not Found) or 410 (Gone) HTTP status code. Non-HTML files (like PDFs) should be completely removed from your server. (Learn more about HTTP status codes) Block access to the content, for example by requiring a password. Indicate that the page should not to be indexed using the noindex meta tag. This is less secure than the other methods. (Via)