I am quite a beginner at website design, and in fact so much of an amateur that I don't like paying for hosting/higher search engine results. Are there any meta's that will simply make my website a bit more discoverable by search engines? It is hosted on GitHub pages. I have gone through all the pages of the search and tried many different searches, but it is just not coming up.
There are some meta tags, which Google supported but it is not going to help to rank higher in search result.
For discovery Purpose I will suggest only two things.
Google using 200+ Factors, to rank specific webpage, please don't search that signal list on Google, because those list are junk, those lists/case-studies are created by marketer with their assumption.
They don't know what's the difference between SEO and Ranking, for example, as I said, submit your site and sitemap to Google Webmaster Tools, so that is SEO process, but Google not using that in Search ranking.
To get your page into the search index of a search engine, you will need to let those engines know your website exists. This could be done by having other well known sites add links to your site or by adding your site manually through tools like google webmaster tools: https://www.google.com/webmasters/tools/
Once you site is know by the search engines, meta tags can help you to get your page higher in the search results. For this see the link on @dan's comment