It's depend on your site reputation(Natural Links that point to your site).
For example site A, is pointing to you (without using nofollow tag), and assume site A has high reputation from other sites, then site A will crawl frequently, and if Googlebot find out your links on that page, then Google Re-crawl and Re-index that webpage. In technical words, If your site PageRank is high, then Google frequently crawl your website more times, and replace the index webpages, if you changed anything in your site like text or media.
For example, If Wikipedia, changed any article text, then it will re-index again within few hours or days. Because the PR is high, and there are so many sites are pointing to Wikipedia article, and that's how Google works.
In my opinion, you should not worry about it, and NO, you don't need to resubmit your sitemap to Google Webmaster Tools
Hope you already test your structure data, if everything is fine then, you can use Fetch As Google Tools, to submit your site or specific directory or webpage for reindex. They gives some monthly quota (10/month for deed index and 500/month for specific URL) to all webmaster user.