So, first off, I just want to say that while it is important for SEO (and conversion optimization as well) to consolidate your content onto a single domain, it isn't like you absolutely have to do this or else Google won't rank your site. My advice to clients in this spot is to evaluate the business case carefully - would you have such a gain in traffic from search (or in sales) as a result of this change that it is worth the technical challenges to consolidate domains? Or, might you be better off investing that money/time/energy in promoting the sites you currently have instead of investing that money/time/energy in the technical change?
So, now, as for how you handle this situation, you would need to move your blog to the same server that hosts the rest of your content. Same goes for the content on static.example.com. For the blog, that would require moving to a blogging platform that works with your server setup, transferring over content, and redirecting URLs from your current blog to your new blog.
Depending on how many posts you have, that could be a minor project or a massive undertaking. I'd evaluate the business case on that carefully and the projected impact this move could have before committing to this especially if it is going to be a pretty massive undertaking.