I have a website with WordPress for 2-3 month with 120 posts, now I want to change some post categories, for example a post is belong to "ASP.NET" category and now I want to transfer it to "ASP.NET MVC" category.
Does it bad effect on my SEO?
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Only if your permalinks included the category will changing the category affect the URL of the posts. If the URL changes, WordPress will automatically tell search engines that the URL has been redirected and the search engines will not care. Therefore, changing your category does not inherently affect your SEO.
However, assuming your category slug is part of the URL for your pages, some slugs are better for keyword searches than other slugs. You have to research what keywords you want to target and decided what slugs best help your SEO.
Yoast SEO plugin is an excellent tool for learning more about these types of issues.
Summary: changing your category slug does not affect SEO but whatever your slug is can affect your SEO. In other words: don't worry.
In concern with the WordPress, when changing a post from one category to another category just automatically changes your post URL.
This will affect your previous URL with a not 404 not found error. But with WordPress you are safe as because, it automatically directs pages from the previous URL to the new URL pages when you change your post category.
It is better to check with previous URL whether it exists or not, if not it is better to redirect this URL to the new URL.