In the Google Scholar Inclusion Guidelines for Webmasters , it is suggested that one use the tags defined by "Highwire Press". Example:

<meta name="citation_title" content="Article Title">

The Google Scholar guidelines also provide examples with some of the more common tags, but not all. For instance: I am looking for meta tags for a book chapter and a link to an HTML full text.

Where are the complete set of these tags defined?

("Official" Highwire Press documentation will be preferred, but if unavailable, I'll accept an independent source.)


2 Answers 2


Note: the link to this question has come up often in searching. Thought it deserved an attempt at an answer.

I've found three resources thus far, but everything seems to be woefully incomplete. Especially after doing an informal sample of resources found on GS.

Here is a small list i've found currently.

  1. Arlitsch, Kenning, and O'Brien, Patrick. Chapter 7: Google Scholar and Institutional Repositories in LITA Guide : Improving the Visibility and Use of Digital Repositories through SEO. Chicago, IL, USA: American Library Association, 2013.
  2. Arlitsch, Kenning and O'Brien, Patrick S. (2012) "Invisible institutional repositories: Addressing the low indexing ratios of IRs in Google Scholar", Library Hi Tech, Vol. 30 Iss: 1, pp.60 - 81 (See appendix)
  3. Inclusion Guidelines for Webmasters from Google Scholar
  4. Zotero also largely supports highwire press tags. A search of their github helps some -- craft your own search and possibly look at some of their other repos.

The first two being the most useful. The second one maybe being the most practical in terms of access.


This blog post lists 39 tags, based on what sites around the web use:

  • citation_title
  • citation_author
  • citation_author_institution
  • citation_author_orcid
  • citation_author_email
  • citation_authors
  • citation_journal_title
  • citation_journal_abbrev
  • citation_conference_title
  • citation_publisher
  • citation_issue
  • citation_volume
  • citation_doi
  • citation_id
  • citation_id_from_sass_path
  • citation_collection_id
  • citation_pmid
  • citation_mjid
  • citation_firstpage
  • citation_lastpage
  • citation_date
  • citation_year
  • citation_publication_date
  • citation_online_date
  • citation_price
  • citation_abstract_html_url
  • citation_abstract_pdf_url
  • citation_fulltext_html_url
  • citation_public_url
  • citation_fulltext_world_readable
  • citation_isbn
  • citation_issn
  • citation_language
  • citation_keywords
  • citation_dissertation_institution
  • citation_technical_report_institution
  • citation_technical_report_number
  • citation_section citation_reference

However, I think it is indeed probably more useful to look at what e.g. Google Scholar and Zotero know about, as there is not guarantee that all these tags are ingested (which is ultimately the goal).

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