No. Google, Bing, and other search engines do not go around testing CMS and other software versions.
However, if you are using an older version of software including operating system (OS), web server, DNS, FTP, and so on, that does become compromised, you will be quickly de-listed by Google as a dangerous site. Your site will not likely drop from the index, but will likely will drop from the SERPs and being marked as dangerous.
It is the website owners responsibility to run a safe site. This includes ensuring that the software they run is not vulnerable. You do not have to run the latest greatest version, but a safe one. You should be able to check for known vulnerabilities here: http://web.nvd.nist.gov/view/vuln/search?execution=e2s1 I also advise using best practices regarding security for your site.