Your question is too broad, in general, as the company you target is a little too big to easily track all their public information.
Here is one way to tackle this that caters for a part of the problem (you will probably need to merge various answers to get a global picture)
Microsoft is a US company and as such when it needs IP addresses it needs to go to the relevant Regional Internet Registry, that is ARIN to request IPv4/IPv6 blocks. This is all publicly registered and queryable.
So if you go to
Microsoft in text field and select "Network" and "Name" the result page will list you 38 IPv4 blocks registered to a network having
Microsoft in its name, you can click on any of them to get more information.
Of course this has many shortcomings:
they can register IP blocks in other regions of the world, so you would need to do the same query for the other RIRs, like RIPE for Europe, etc.
(go to https://apps.db.ripe.net/db-web-ui/#/query?searchtext=microsoft#resultsSection to see an example of many other IP blocks)
they could use IP blocks registered to others or do registrations using other names or depending on what you are exactly tracking just not using the IP addresses you think they are using
In part, you could do the same thing starting with their AS numbers and find out which IP blocks are announced by their AS.
And if you are thorough you should obviously take care of IPv6 addresses too.