Sorry for the simple question, but I googled and lurked on this site and couldn't find anything (I don't believe I was asking the proper questions). I am aware of permissions in SharePoint; is it like that in a way? You set permissions for certain people to be able to submit/edit code (do they login?), and then you and the other people are the only ones who edit? Thank you.
Usually, there is a content management system in place, which has user permissions set by the administrator, much as with local operating systems. Who gets what permission is a matter of company policy. Some editors may be able to edit files but not delete them, for example. Often, web editors are required to go through a training program first, before being granted editing access. In the case of a non-CMS site or other actual server/file administration with FTP or other access, usually the webmaster is the person to do that, because managing code is more of an "IT" function that web content editing. The webmaster may deputize one or more developers in a team to also manage files if necessary.
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Generally it depends on the back-end programming that you have set up. Using e-commerce as an example, bigcommerce, zen cart, shopify, etc. all have code already in place that allow you to assign users, and limit what they can do.
Ultimately, it depends on the actual programming of the site, if its programmed to allow users, it can, if not, it may just be FTP file access only, or any number of ways.