If I create blogs using different blog domains with the same content (own content) and link it with my original website using targeted anchor text, will it harm my SEO of my original website? The original website is genuine and doesn't have any copied contents. I'm using cross-domain canonicalization to some extend, but can't use it in all the articles and blogs. Will the duplicate contents from my own different blogs will hurt my original site just because it links to it?
You must be aware of recent Google algorithm updates. If not, read WebMasterWorld forum where people shared their experience on how they lost their ranks because of duplicate content and poor link profiles.
I strongly recommend not to publish duplicate content on multiple blogs just to generate backlinks for your main website. It will no longer help in organic search. Rather than give your effort on publishing original and well formatted content that can help your readers.
Of course. Definitely It will harm your website. Because unique content is one of the major SEO factor and if any website gets backlink from duplicate content then it will definitely hurt by Google. Google's latest penguin update (Penguin 2.0) affect all the websites that follows link farming methods. It also affect the websites that get backlink from bad content also. So if you use several blogs with same content with link target to your site, its a dangerous one for your site. So my advice is build a single blog with your own content and get a backlink to your site or build multiple blogs with different unique content.
When you get backlinks from another website, authority of this website is very important for SEO of your website. If you decide to create a spammy blogs network, Google will apply a sanction to your network and thus to your website.
A good solution for SEO of your website would be to create a blogs network with relevant and no duplicate content refering to your field of competence and put just few backlinks to your website from each blog.