What is the default Web browser on Android devices?
Are there weird Web browser set by default that I should be aware of (to test my mobile Website on it)?
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That depends on the device and version. The most common, particularly for less new devices is the Android Browser. Like Chrome, it is based on Webkit and identifies itself as:
Mozilla/5.0 (Linux; U; Android x.x; Build/xx) AppleWebKit/530.17 (KHTML like Gecko) Version/4.0 Mobile Safari 530/17
Most recent - at least those from Google - devices use Chrome for Android instead. Phones use the token Mobile in the user-agent strings while tablets do not:
Mozilla/5.0 (Linux; Android x.x; Build/xx) AppleWebKit/530.17 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/xx.xx Safari/<WebKit Rev> Mozilla/5.0 (Linux; Android x.x; Build/xx) AppleWebKit/530.17 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/xx.xx Mobile Safari/<WebKit Rev>
Androids use the Android Browser as well as a few others that they can download. You can test your website on using an Android VM on your local machine. While for iPhone, iPad testing I recommend you get yourself these devices as there is no VM's available for these devices and the online emulators are not the real deal.