What is the best way to manage custom content types (like in Drupal) in Magento Community? For example I want to make a catalog of jobs (name, desc, image) or catalog of local shops (address, phone, etc.).
Magento pretty much has its work cut out for it running a multi-lingual, multi-store, multi-country, multi-province, e-commerce store operation. It attempts to concentrate on the product display and marketing, customer accounts, taxation, order work flow, fulfillment and inventory management side of things. Enough bugs there without adding yet more complexity.
Magento has a bare bones CMS system that allows you to create pages and HTML blocks. The HTML blocks may be referenced in CMS pages, templates or category pages.
If you want something more sophisticated, there are various 3rd party extensions (FishPig is one) that allow Magento to coexist with other CMS software that has strengths in the areas you are looking for.
I don't think such functionality exists in Magento. This question has been asked in the forums on their site and did not receive any answers: http://www.magentocommerce.com/boards/viewthread/26179/