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I am putting together an Intranet for a company - I have set up authentication to get into the Intranet from a login box linked to AD via LDAP/

However the client wants (if possible) to have users automatically authenticate into the intranet if they are logged into the domain.

AD and IIS7.5 are on separate servers (in the same network). I believe that I need to use WindowsAuthentication to do this - but will that work? As the web server is not part of the domain, do I need to tell IIS where the AD server is?

The next part could be more complex: once the user has authenticated, I need to drag user details from AD about the user, I guess with LDAP, however I will need to know the user's username in order to do this, won't I? As the user hasn't had to type this in, how do I get that?

The intranet site is in asp.net 4 VB.

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Windows Authentication will really only work if the IIS server is joined to the domain. That's the first thing you'll want to do (assuming you can). Once you do - WindowsAuthentication will make authentication a breeze. If joining the domain is out of the question, then you'll at best be able to use a mechanism based on forms authentication that could 'call' the AD server and check username/password. For the intranet automatic windows authentication to really work the IIS server will need to be a part of the domain.

Next, if you want to get user details that's easy enough, see:

https://stackoverflow.com/questions/4961073/getting-active-directory-info-when-using-windows-authentication

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