The last algo update on this subject was Monday, July 26, 2021, and the advice given by Google was to avoid attracting them to link to your site and don't link back to them.
Links are one of the ways Google understands what content may be helpful to searchers, and they can be good for sites to receive, as long as they're well deserved. A best practice is to avoid methods of acquiring links that violate our guidelines against link schemes. In particular, if you're linking out to other sites, make sure to qualify those links appropriately. Here are some more specific guidelines to help site owners manage links that involve payment, sponsorship, or are otherwise commercial in nature.
Don't link back to sites just because they link to you. The links on your site are under your control and if you link to a bad neighborhood you become part of that neighborhood.
What you can expect from google is that they nullify any value of those links once they find them, but it is unlikely they have any value. Some of them may be machine created pages which have made a copy of links from search engines or other sources in an effort to automatically create a page they think will rank ... but google and others actively work to remove that type of spam.
Google does have a disavow tool for incoming links, but most large sites can not keep up with all the spam links they receive. However, if the sites are ones you don't want your name associated with ... you can use google's disavow tool to help in removing that type of spam.
If the link has increased your site ranking such gains will be short lived. Link schemes are not going to allow a site to remain profitable, Google will insure that, they ultimately crash and burn.
Negative SEO is the term used for when somebody tries to sabotage another site. Google is aware of this and looks to the site to see if the site in question links back to the bad neighborhood. Disavow such links when you see them, to let google know, I'm not in their neighborhood. But I expect most of these sites are machine created.