Short redirect chains might slightly hurt SEO, but probably have no effect. If it is easy for you to change the logic to have a single redirect, then go ahead and do so. If it is difficult, or duplicates logic then I wouldn't bother.
If your site used to be HTTP with uppercase URLs and you have lots of inbound links to those URLs, search engines will have to process two redirects instead of one to pass that link equity through to your site. Search engines are willing to do that. They follow redirect chains that are five redirects long with no problems. There is an old debate as to whether each redirect hop causes a small amount of link equity to get lost. That debate has never fully been settled, but I now think there is no loss of link juice through redirects.
If you don't have external links that point to HTTP uppercase URLs, there is no reason to worry about whether multiple redirects will hurt SEO because search engines will rarely encounter the redirect chains.
If your site has HSTS enabled, you shouldn't redirect directly from the HTTP uppercase URLs to HTTPS lowercase URLs. HSTS is a configuration setting that has browsers automatically convert HTTP to HTTPS without ever hitting your server. Some top level domains (like
.dev) have the setting enabled for every domain name under that TLD. When HSTS is enabled, HTTP URLs are supposed to redirect to the exact same URL but with HTTPS.