The short anwser is YES, you could...but
Although Google introduced Domain properties in search console back in February, 2019 to show data/reports for all URLs under the domain name, including all protocols, subdomains, and paths...that does not mean search engines will consider backlinks coming from sub domains the same.
Consolidating reports is one thing, but a subdomain is generally considered as a standalone site that is branched off from the main domain and Google, for example, has always treated subdomains as different sites, separate from the main domain.
Then, because they technically consider sub domains a separate entity there is an opportunity to receive valid links from them.
Relevancy more than Quality
That being said, in order to get quality backlinks from separate sub domains each site really needs to stand out by itself. Take into consideration that If you create a sub domain it will take time to build its own reputation
Usually sub domains represent a way that a company sees its content or services are organised online and having a backlink coming from two separate organisational entities needs to makes sense. Would a domain’s blog post link the same from its shop to your website.com?
Would you get Quality Backlinks
I answered yes, but I am making 3 big assumptions. First that each subdomain are a legitimate representation of the way a business organised itself online, second each site are providing high quality content and are an authority on their own and lastly backlinks are of the highest quality to the users of each site.
What criteria will be applied? each search engine will offer a different set of rules. Google for example has published their own Google’s webmaster guidelines and also listed a number of link schemes that they consider will have a negative impact on your site rankings, that you should checkout.