My website encoding is ISO-8859-1. ISO-8859-1 is defined as charset in the web pages and Google Search results have always looked good.

However, for several weeks now, special characters (é, à, è, â, etc.) are replaced by � in the Google Search results, for both page titles and page descriptions.

Screenshot of the Google Search rendering

The charset is defined on each page: And the website looks good with all web browsers, there is no encoding errors.


So far i see, french diacritical signs are not a part of ISO-8859-1 (beside of apostrophe). The cache version of Google doesn't contain these characters.

I see two workarounds:

  1. Encode the whole content as UTF-8 (would be the way i prefer)
  2. Encode diacritical signs as HTML entities. Example: séries becomes séries. This can be done in an editor like Notepad++ and HTML Tag plugin. This is a bunch of manual work - i wouldn't do it.

BTW. you have a page https://www.hypnoweb.net/www/, which mirrors the startpage - not good.

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    French diacritic characters are all part of ISO-8859-1. There should be no need to use entities for them for that character set. The only French characters not covered by ISO-8859-1 are Œ, œ, and the very rare Ÿ. Also missing commonly used characters are the Euro sign (€), ellipses (…), non-breaking space ( ), and various arrows (→). ISO-8859-15 would be a better choice for French than ISO-8859-1 because it includes the missing French characters and the Euro symbol. UTF-8 would be even better. – Stephen Ostermiller May 25 at 13:57
  • Good point, the characters are not present in the Google cache version. As I cannot move easily to UTF-8, I will update my PHP script to encode special characters in HTML entities. I'm going to start with the page titles, let's see if it will help! – Eckinox May 29 at 4:22
  • It worked, I just had to encode as HTML entities! Thanks! – Eckinox May 29 at 9:31

Google is getting confused because while the page is ISO-8859-1, some content is loaded into the page in UTF-8. This causes Googlebot to have to re-encode the content page content as UTF-8 so that it can process it. Something is going wrong during that process and characters are getting mangled.

For example, you use a JavaScript library for consenting to cookies. It loads UTF-8 encoded text and writes it into the page.

Ideally Google would be able to deal with this situation without getting the characters garbled. I contacted Google about this and a bug has been filed on their end. However, some other sites that are getting re-encoded are working. Whatever is happening with your site isn't affecting a lot of other sites, so it may be a lower priority fix for Google.

As a workaround you could ensure that your page and JavaScript all use the same character set. Since you don't have control over third party libraries that use UTF-8 and can't convert them to ISO-8859-1, you would have to convert your site to UTF-8.

In general, there is no good reason to use ISO-8859-1 these days. That character set only support 256 characters. UTF-8 doesn't make the page size significantly larger and it supports all unicode characters:

  • The extra French characters Œ, œ, and Ÿ
  • The Euro sign (€), ellipses (…), non-breaking space ( )
  • Fun characters like arrows and emoji

Using UTF-8 allows you support user generated content from any language. At the very least, it allows users names to be written correctly, no matter their national origin.

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  • Thanks a lot for your detailed answer, let's hope Google will fix it one day... I would love to migrate to UTF-8 (and to a supported version of PHP), but the code base is a mess. If someone reads me and is looking for a new challenge, let me know ;-) – Eckinox May 25 at 17:23
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    i wonder, why this issue is absolutely rare to see. In the german-speaking web there are plenty of websites still using ISO-8859-1 - and since a year it is a must to include cookie banners, cookieconsent from your analyze is pretty popular cookie banner solution. With this setup there should be around each tenth website in german-speaking web messed on this kind... – Evgeniy May 25 at 18:06
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    I think there is more to it than just the cookie consent script. John Mueller said that many other sites are working fine. He said it is somehow related to the UTF-8 insertion into ISO-8859-1 and the "re-encoding" that needs to happen to handle that. I don't have more information or a good suggestion about how to diagnose the issue further. – Stephen Ostermiller May 25 at 21:29
  • In fact the issue appeared several days after I changed my PHP editor from phpEd to PhpStorm. At first I thought the issue could come from the files encoding in PhpStorm: I was using ISO-8859-1 and in phpEd I used windows-1252. I tried to change to windows-1252 in PhpStorm, but it did not fix the problem. Would it be possible that one of my PHP files are wrongly encoded, for instance in UTF-8. Is there a way to detect that? – Eckinox May 26 at 3:18
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    I may have found the issue, I have a PHP file with charset=unknown-8bit included in all my pages. I'll try to find how to fix that... – Eckinox May 26 at 3:27

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