Yes. Structured data is about connecting information across the internet.
Googles guidelines for logo do not mention any restriction on the location of the logo:
Nor does the underlying specification for logo or url:
In practice, many sites place their images in a CDN which is often a completely different domain. They have no issue with structured data.
You can also test your structured data using tools like the Rich Results Test. It does not report any issues when URLs form other domains are used.