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The question ist not about "what they are" and "how to implement them technically", it is about where on a website I should put which of them?

A website with a typical structure like

  • Homepage (the domain)
  • Blog (list with blog posts)
  • Blog Post (the blog post)
  • Pages (other pages)
  • Shop (start page of a shop)
  • Product (detail of a product)
  • Contact Page

For example, it is clear that the type "BlogPosting" goes with a "Blog Post" but what about other generic types like "WebSite", "LocalBusiness", "Organization", etc.?

Do they belong on every page of the website? Does every page needs or should have the "WebSite" data and the contact page has in addition "LocalBusiness" or "Organization" data?

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According to the dev docs for structured data

Structured data is coded using in-page markup on the page that the information applies to. The structured data on the page should describe the content of that page. You should not create blank or empty pages just to hold structured data; nor should you add structured data about information that is not visible to the user, even if the information is accurate.

So, taking the above into account, then "localBusiness" or "Organization" data on the contact page or possibly home page if the home page seems more relevant (which is may in some instances), however it should ideally only be on one page of the site, not all pages.
John Mueller addressed this Jan last year in the following video
https://youtu.be/cXbWuQQp81A?t=3096

Following page has a long list of various types of structured data, together with the necessary markup and guidelines for each type of:
https://developers.google.com/search/docs/data-types/article

And this page has further information, with links to the new codelab for creating and testing your structured data before adding it to the relevant site.
https://developers.google.com/search/docs/guides/intro-structured-data

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    To add to that, you only need to mark up WebSite once for a website. Typically on the home page. There is probably only one Organization related to the website. You can mark it up fully on say the contact page using the appropriate sub type, like LocalBusiness. And give it an id. Then you can reference that organization from other entities around the website using that id. – Tony McCreath Jan 19 at 23:48
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If you add structure data for whole website than it place in section and if you put structure data for specific page than it place in section. For example, you add "contact" structure data than contact-schema-code placed in section of Contact web page.

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There is no reason to implement most of those for Google. Google uses a few select schema for rich snippets but ignores other schema. They don't use schema to influence rankings. So having some random schema implement on the page isn't going to help its SEO.

BlogPosting is a type of Article and Google does use article schema for Google News. If you want to apply to Google News and appear in the article carousel, you can use that one. If you are not approved for Google News, I don't think that one will change anything for your site though.

LocalBusiness schema is used for inclusion of your business in Google Maps. So if you have a local store front or service area business, you should implement that one.

Other than that, look through Google's rich snippet gallery that I linked above and go for any that might get your site to stand out in the search results.

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