No, you can't schedule when Google (or any other major search engine) crawls in the way you're looking for.
Most sites do have down time, and issuing the appropriate 503 HTTP code will let search engine bots know to come back later. But if that happens for too long or too often, search engines will tend to assume the site is permanently gone or at least too unreliable to rank well.
There would also be indirect negative effects on SEO. For example by being only intermittently available, the site will likely appear unreliable and so attract fewer links.
You can configure crawl rate for some search engines (Google being one of them), but that's not quite the same thing. Bing allows you to set a preferred time of day for crawling but, again, that's not quite what you're after.