The only thing I am a bit concerned when reading your question is - what do you mean you store static pages on your server? You mean, you want to store "about-us.html" file somewhere in your 'www' folder and then link to that page? If so - my answer is no.
I have little experience in terms of CMS. However, if you work with systems like Wordpress, Joomla, Typo3 or Drupal, the contents of your pages will be stored in a database. There's no way around this and generally speaking if you are after performance, stay away from Wordpress & Co.. This is a very subjective opinion by me - a grumpy, nerdy developer :P.
We usually develop our applications and sites for clients in Web Application Frameworks, i.e. Rails, Django. There are plenty, and it depends on the use case to decide what the prefered framework is going to be. The bottom line here - you can then create controllers for views that do not access the database but display the content you place in the corresponding view. Ergo - making it static.
On top of that, you can cache the content. Wo when the request comes in, the application sends the page right back without starting to process anything at the application level — making it super fast and efficient.