Is it bad for SEO to create a website without a domain (just on an IP address)?
Search Engines always suggests you to create websites that are easy to use and serve the content/services that the users are looking for. So, yes, this indirectly affects your SEO because of the following reasons:
- Not having a domain name that users can remember (Your IP address lacks credibility and majority of the people cannot remember the IP address for sure.)
- Every time, you change your host, a new IP address will be assigned to your website. (This means, your website will be treated as completely new unless you use "Change of Address" tool on Google Search Console and similar for other SE if they provide such options.)
- Lack of Credibility. (Not having a whois registrar or record will make your users think whether your site is legitimate or not. This will affect your business and bounce rates or no conversions will drop your rankings sooner)
Apart from the above for SEO, this decision also poses a huge potential risk to your business. Here's why:
- Hosting only using IP makes you rely on your provider. If the provider shuts down the company or stops their services for whatsoever reasons, you'll be at loss.
Regarding your stand on using a charging card or saving money on buying a domain name:
- Buying a domain name is the most beneficial approach as this can be owned by you as long as you renew the domain accordingly. So saving money on buying a domain name is only beneficial when you setup a website which you will discard in the near future.
- About providing your details to charge your card. If you're hesitant to put your details, how will your users pay for the business? Also, you do not lose anything on putting up your information.
- If you're worried about your personal information being shown on WHOIS, you can register the domain privately. (You do not have to pay extra money to hide your personal information on WHOIS if you register your domain with a EU registrar)