Structured data doesn't help rankings. At best it can get Google to enhance the display of your site in the search results. Google maintains a gallery of all they ways they use schema.org markup in search results.
Google does allow you to mark up the breadcrumbs of a page for display instead of the URL in the results. You could choose either categories or tags for that. Categories would usually make the most sense because they have a hierarchy that would fit well into breadcrumbs. There is no benefit to marking up both categories and tags. I wasn't able to find data on how much breadcrumb markup might change the click through rate (CTR) from the search results. It certainly should have some effect, but I would expect it to be modest since most users click on the big blue titles and not on the green URLs or breadcrumbs.
Google says that they have an article carousel, but I've never seen that in my search results, so I doubt that your
Article markup will have much effect. It would probably be most effective for newsy articles for which Google had determined that the queries deserve freshness (QDF). I think Google is most likely to show the article carousel for news related searches.