Some websites are marked as safe in the Google search results like shown in the image:
My website and others are not. How do I get this safe mark for my website?
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This looks like the output of a browser extension, which means only users with the extension installed will see the badge.
For example, Mcafee SECURE Safe Browsing place a similar badge next to "safe" sites according to TrustedSite.com
You can apply for such a badge at https://www.trustedsite.com/signup?re=addsite