It is very common for database driven sites to use templated pages with titles that differ only by a word or phrase plugged into a single location. Having page titles that are very similar to others except for one word is not generally problematic.
Google treats numbers as unique elements of page titles. You only have to do a Google search for things like:
- is 27 prime
- 27 factorization
- 27 cube root
You will see that Google does indeed take into account the "27" and most of the returned sites use "27" prominently in the title. Some of the sites appear to be like yours and have pages for many different numbers.
You need to be very careful of violating Google's webmaster guideline against automatically generated content. Make sure your pages are different enough from each other in general that Google doesn't view them as low quality generated content. There are a potentially infinite number of pages that you could create for all the numbers. You obviously don't want to make infinite pages available to Googlebot. You probably want to limit it to 100, as that will handle the majority of the numbers people would actually search for. It would be ideal to have something written by an actual human about each and every number.
Since the number is the unique and important part of the title, I'd recommend putting it somewhere closer to the beginning. I'd use something like:
The Number 27: Square Root, Cube Root, Factors, Prime Check - My Brand