7 replaced http://stackoverflow.com/ with https://stackoverflow.com/
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Another thing you can do is generate a sitemap.xml containing both languages and submit that to google webmaster tools to be crawled. In other words a site map with both foo.com/bar?language=de and foo.com/bar?language=en urls. Example:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<urlset xmlns="http://www.sitemaps.org/schemas/sitemap/0.9">
   <url>
      <loc>http://www.example.com/</loc>
   </url>
   <url>
      <loc>http://www.example.com/?language=de</loc>
   </url>
   <url>
      <loc>http://www.example.com/about-us</loc>
   </url>
   <url>
      <loc>http://www.example.com/about-us?language=de</loc>
   </url>
</urlset>

Another thing you can do is generate a sitemap.xml containing both languages and submit that to google webmaster tools to be crawled. In other words a site map with both foo.com/bar?language=de and foo.com/bar?language=en urls.

Another thing you can do is generate a sitemap.xml containing both languages and submit that to google webmaster tools to be crawled. In other words a site map with both foo.com/bar?language=de and foo.com/bar?language=en urls. Example:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<urlset xmlns="http://www.sitemaps.org/schemas/sitemap/0.9">
   <url>
      <loc>http://www.example.com/</loc>
   </url>
   <url>
      <loc>http://www.example.com/?language=de</loc>
   </url>
   <url>
      <loc>http://www.example.com/about-us</loc>
   </url>
   <url>
      <loc>http://www.example.com/about-us?language=de</loc>
   </url>
</urlset>
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Googlebot may have issues using session ID cookies so you must not rely on them. You need distinct pages for each language and I recommend that you switch to foo.com/en/bar format but if you must use the querystring then add code to alter every anchor <a> tag on the page to dynamically include the language parameter based on the presence of the querystring existing.

Another thing you can do is generate a sitemap.xml containing both languages and submit that to google webmaster tools to be crawled. In other words a site map with both foo.com/bar?language=de and foo.com/bar?language=en urls.

Then in Google Webmaster Tools' URL Parameter Configuration screen add (or modify) that language parameter to indicate to Google that it (1) changes page content and (2) its affect is that it Translates.

If features such as JavaScript, cookies, session IDs, frames, DHTML, or Macromedia Flash keep you from seeing your entire site in a text browser, then spiders may have trouble crawling it. http://support.google.com/webmasters/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=40349

see also http://stackoverflow.com/questions/7958971/does-google-bot-keep-session-when-crawling-asp-net

As far as we know, there's no guarantee that GoogleBot either uses a session id or doesn't use it, thus we don't know whether there is a session being reused during crawling

Correct, there is no session being saved or carried over as it crawls and it does not crawl the site in one sitting. It will stop, and start at it's own leisure. Stop depending on session.

As for your redirection strategy to combat the links already existing in the wild that will help those who linked up the DE version pages without the language parameter. Google will follow the 302 redirects correctly but they are temporary redirects and it won't correctly link to the proper language and will likely always land on the english version.

About the 302s:

302 redirect would not effect google indexing the new urls that your redirecting to. Google sees it as temporary and will index the original link. If you want to fix link juice you'll need to 301. Here's a handy infographic http://www.seomoz.org/blog/an-seos-guide-to-http-status-codes

From a blog post comment by Matt Cutts on 302 redirects in 2006 (I know that's a long time ago but I think the advice still holds true.) :

an on-domain 302 shouldn’t hurt a site, but if you’ve moved everything to a new location for good, I’d try using a 301 (permanent) redirect instead.

Googlebot may have issues using session ID cookies so you must not rely on them. You need distinct pages for each language and I recommend that you switch to foo.com/en/bar format but if you must use the querystring then add code to alter every anchor <a> tag on the page to dynamically include the language parameter based on the presence of the querystring existing.

Another thing you can do is generate a sitemap.xml containing both languages and submit that to google webmaster tools to be crawled. In other words a site map with both foo.com/bar?language=de and foo.com/bar?language=en urls.

Then in Google Webmaster Tools' URL Parameter Configuration screen add (or modify) that language parameter to indicate to Google that it (1) changes page content and (2) its affect is that it Translates.

If features such as JavaScript, cookies, session IDs, frames, DHTML, or Macromedia Flash keep you from seeing your entire site in a text browser, then spiders may have trouble crawling it. http://support.google.com/webmasters/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=40349

see also http://stackoverflow.com/questions/7958971/does-google-bot-keep-session-when-crawling-asp-net

As far as we know, there's no guarantee that GoogleBot either uses a session id or doesn't use it, thus we don't know whether there is a session being reused during crawling

Correct, there is no session being saved or carried over as it crawls and it does not crawl the site in one sitting. It will stop, and start at it's own leisure. Stop depending on session.

As for your redirection strategy to combat the links already existing in the wild that will help those who linked up the DE version pages without the language parameter. Google will follow the 302 redirects correctly but they are temporary redirects and it won't correctly link to the proper language and will likely always land on the english version.

About the 302s:

302 redirect would not effect google indexing the new urls that your redirecting to. Google sees it as temporary and will index the original link. If you want to fix link juice you'll need to 301. Here's a handy infographic http://www.seomoz.org/blog/an-seos-guide-to-http-status-codes

Googlebot may have issues using session ID cookies so you must not rely on them. You need distinct pages for each language and I recommend that you switch to foo.com/en/bar format but if you must use the querystring then add code to alter every anchor <a> tag on the page to dynamically include the language parameter based on the presence of the querystring existing.

Another thing you can do is generate a sitemap.xml containing both languages and submit that to google webmaster tools to be crawled. In other words a site map with both foo.com/bar?language=de and foo.com/bar?language=en urls.

Then in Google Webmaster Tools' URL Parameter Configuration screen add (or modify) that language parameter to indicate to Google that it (1) changes page content and (2) its affect is that it Translates.

If features such as JavaScript, cookies, session IDs, frames, DHTML, or Macromedia Flash keep you from seeing your entire site in a text browser, then spiders may have trouble crawling it. http://support.google.com/webmasters/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=40349

see also http://stackoverflow.com/questions/7958971/does-google-bot-keep-session-when-crawling-asp-net

As far as we know, there's no guarantee that GoogleBot either uses a session id or doesn't use it, thus we don't know whether there is a session being reused during crawling

Correct, there is no session being saved or carried over as it crawls and it does not crawl the site in one sitting. It will stop, and start at it's own leisure. Stop depending on session.

As for your redirection strategy to combat the links already existing in the wild that will help those who linked up the DE version pages without the language parameter. Google will follow the 302 redirects correctly but they are temporary redirects and it won't correctly link to the proper language and will likely always land on the english version.

About the 302s:

302 redirect would not effect google indexing the new urls that your redirecting to. Google sees it as temporary and will index the original link. If you want to fix link juice you'll need to 301. Here's a handy infographic http://www.seomoz.org/blog/an-seos-guide-to-http-status-codes

From a blog post comment by Matt Cutts on 302 redirects in 2006 (I know that's a long time ago but I think the advice still holds true.) :

an on-domain 302 shouldn’t hurt a site, but if you’ve moved everything to a new location for good, I’d try using a 301 (permanent) redirect instead.

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