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I described the different ways how mainEntityOfPage can be specified in an answer on Stack Overflow. The difference between your two examples is that the second one creates an item (with the type WebPage), while the first one just points to another page (which might or might not define a type). From the perspective of Schema.org, both ways are fine. The ...
Yes, as its definition says "Indicates a page […]". If it were intended only for the current page, there would have been no point in expecting a URL as value, as a Boolean value would have sufficed. In your example, it’s probably not necessary to define mainEntity and mainEntityOfPage for the Article (assuming that the markup is on the page http://...
If the organisation info is static all across your blogs then you may define those properties using meta tags. It will not be considered as hidden content since the info is present on the page. sample code: <span itemprop="publisher" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Organization"> <meta itemprop="name" content="XYZ Org"/> </span>
You can refer to the organisation markup using itemref. Add an id to the organisation markup, then use itemref="yourid" at the top of your markup which needs to include the organisation. Don't duplicate your markup with JSON-LD; use one or the other.
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