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at "webmasters.stackexchange.com" I already found a similar topic: Stop directory listing using .htaccess and redirect to good error page

Options -Indexes
ErrorDocument 403 /path/to/403.html

However, now I want to distinguish between whether there was actaully a directory listing request issued OR if the user tried to access a protected area (through htaccess) unsuccessfully.

Both fire a 403, now how do I know which was the reason (the directory listing or the htaccess AuthName... thing) ?

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I am not sure you can without mod_perl. I can't think of anything yet. – closetnoc Apr 18 '14 at 15:44
What do you want to do if it was a directory request OR protected area? Any reason why you can't check this in your 403 document itself? – w3dk Apr 18 '14 at 17:00

A request for a directory listing will have a URL that ends in /.

So http://example.com/images/ will be a 403 because of the directory listing.

http://example.com/private/document.html will be a 403 because of your rule for the private directory.

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Unfortunately, this won't work with my situation as I have a folder called like "private" that is protected but there is an index file in there, so requesting that file could be done via "example.com/private/"; which has a trailing slash NOT because of the directory listing but because of the .htaccess protection. – user37181 Apr 20 '14 at 14:32
up vote 1 down vote accepted

Finally it worked by putting an additional line in the .htacces of the protected folder (call it private)

ErrorDocument 403 /forbidden-because-of-protection

and in the root's .htaccess I put the line like

ErrorDocument 403 /forbidden-because-of-directory-listing

So now when there is some request issued like /private/some/thing/bla the first .htaccess rule will be called - thus redirecting to /forbidden-because-of-protection otherwise like requesting a directory listing (thus not in /private) apache goes for the second rule.

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