No, you can't retrieve the data that was filtered out. The data sent by the tracking code for a property is processed by all the views according to the filters and only the filtered data will be stored.
See this page from Google Analytics Help Center
When you add a property to an account, Analytics creates the first
view for that property. That first view has no filters, and so
includes all the data for that property. To ensure that you always
have access to all of the data for a property, do not delete that
first unfiltered view.
When you create a view, you can then report on that particular data
from the creation date of the view forward. For example, if you create
a view on June 1, then you can report on data from June 1 forward, but
not on any data collected prior to June 1.
Here is another reference :
remember that anything you filter out will be unavailable to you in
this profile. Therefore, if you are going to use very specific filters
(like a filter to show only traffic from the United States), you will
want to create an additional profile that is unfiltered so you have
all of your data somewhere if you need it.