Is there some general description telling how Google crawls your website? I mean, not the frequency, but which URL is it going to explore next?
No. They have their own way of determining what pages get crawled and how often and it is not public information. Pages that are updated often and rank well seem to be crawled more often than static and poor ranking pages. But there is no way to predict when a page will be crawled or how often.
Search engines never reveal the way their algorithms work or people will just start exploiting them... Google also stopped respecting the
Which is the next website a Google bot will go for?
Well, this process is never pre defined, Google never ques up the websites to be crawled, say for example bot visited a URL, on that page it will get 10 links, 10 leads to 100 and so on. So more the websites points the links to a single website, more often is that website visited by the bots and this way it ranks up the page...
From Google Support :