My website has been getting inbound links from an article which contains a low word count but lots of anchor text. That paragraph contains 150 words but nearly 15 are anchor text. Will that have an affect my site's ranking?
I don't think so it affects your ranking badly, especially if just one webpage is concerned.
Backlinks profile of a website must be diversified; that means you can get backlinks from various types of webpages even if they are not SEO optimized. Moreover, it shows to Google your backlinks profile is "natural".