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I developing a client's blog and he needs it to be bilingual (english and spanish). Now what he wants is that users can get to the content based on the domain e.g. John enters www.domain.com and he gets the english version and Juan enters www.elsenordominio.com to get the spanish version.

All content will be validated by PHP so the users and search engines only reads the domain related language.

What do I need to use header re-direct or 301? Is it bad for SEO? Will Google will penalize me?

I hope you guys can help me and forgive me if my english is not good.

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How are redirects involved with this? By your description, the user gets the localised version he's asking for (by typing the domain name). I'd suggest not to "force" the users to what you think is the best language for them, better offer a prominent link like "Hey, you're browser language is english, there's a english version of this page at..." –  peterp Sep 25 '13 at 14:26
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2 Answers

Set the DNS for both domains to point to the same server and use virtual hosts on that.

In PHP use $_SERVER['SERVER_NAME'] to see what domain is called and show the related language/content for that domain.

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Don't trust 'accept-language' header - users often don't sets own language, left default 'en-us' and gets English version every time.

Google in multilangual sites suggest to use alternate link with hreflang: http://support.google.com/webmasters/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=189077.

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