I have a nicely tagged section on my homepage describing a restaurant's location, city, state, zip, telephone, cuisine type, price and payments accepted. Should I tag any of this info on every other of my pages, or is the home page the generally accepted place for this information? I do include the address and phone number in the footer on every page, if this helps.
It'd be perfectly valid to mark up the same content in multiple locations. The point of microdata is that it makes your information understandable to machines (search engines, browsers, applications, what have you), so wherever data occurs on your site that you can mark up with microdata, you should mark it up.
Generally speaking, I would recommend using as much microdata as you can. While it isn't doing much more than power Rich Snippets right now, its applications will grow in the future. At the very least, it's worth structuring your code in such a way that you can add it later on.
The only thing I'd be careful of is the duplication of information itself. Small amounts of standard "boilerplate" information like an address and phone number should be fine, but anything more substantial that should be carefully considered. If you're feeling the need to reproduce large amounts of information across multiple pages, there's probably some scope to improve the site's architecture.
So, no address information will be shown in SERP. However, Google may change it's algorithms some time later, like showing pin icon or anything else. And if you do not add your location to every page, just home page will have such icon (or whatever else).
Use Snippet tool to figure out what information google retrieves from your pages.
For your site I recommend you to implement:
Have good SERP results!