[Don't ask legal questions without specifying where you're asking about.]
In the US, titles do not fall under copyright(6th question). According to the UK Copyright Service, this also applies. Generally speaking, if your country subscribes to the Berne Convention, you're relatively safe on the copyright side of things.
Separate from that, though, it is still possible to register a title/phrase as a trademark, as with Chicken Soup for the Soul and the "for Dummies" books.
[Insert standard caveat here that some countries may not apply the same rules, or have concepts such as Fair Use at all, and that there's also the risk of a vindictive copyright/trademark holder with lots of money making baseless threats and just wearing you down, etc. and that you should be talking to a lawyer if you think there's any real risk.]
So basically: you're probably safe in the case of most books. But you should also probably check anyway. If the book in question is at all popular or has reached a certain point of "product" in its own right, the risk increases.