Yes. It's probably more so when alt text isn't present, just because Google seems to put a lot of emphasis on that.
Give your images detailed, informative filenames
The filename can give Google clues about the subject matter of the
image. Try to make your filename a good description of the subject
matter of the image. For example,
my-new-black-kitten.jpg is a lot
more informative than
IMG00023.JPG. Descriptive filenames can also be
useful to users: If we're unable to find suitable text in the page on
which we found the image, we'll use the filename as the image's
snippet in our search results.
Source: Google's Image Publishing Guidelines
Even if this didn't help with seo, though, it would help your users, because a detailed file name such as
red-mercadese-slk.jpg will help them a lot more when trying to figure what the image is about than, for example,