Well, this is the most important thing. You can blog all you want, but if you don't market and optimize your site appropriately, it'll all be for naught. I'll try to keep things direct, although brevity isn't my strong suit. Have a plan!
Let's first take care of the search engine submissions.
1) Make a sitemap.xml and urllist.txt.
Go to www.vigos.com/products/gsitemap/ and download their free mapmaker. Follow instructions and generate a proper sitemap.xml and urllist.txt. This is an older tools that I still find useful -- or there online alternatives like http://www.xml-sitemaps.org which does a good job and gives detailed instructions on what to do with these files.
2) Google. Go to http://goo.gl/D3sl Google's Webmaster tools and add your url. This will invoke the googlebot to spider your blog.
3) Yahoo/Bing. Let's go to http://siteexplorer.search.yahoo.com/index.php and submit your site to Yahoo/Bing. There, instead of a sitemap.xml, you'll submit a urllist.txt.
Let's now take care of the backlinking.
Go to every directory you can possibly find, and add your site. Make a small file in notepad with a short description of your blog. This way, you can just copy and paste. I have a list of over 500 free directories, and I use it often. But the most important backlinks are the ones that point to your blog from pertinent websites. Submit your site to www.dmoz.org. It takes a long time to get accepted, sometimes, depending on how speedy the moderator is, but it's the most important backlink directory. List your blog in as many good, relevant directories as possible. The more quality backlinks, the better!
Let's make a Google+ page, a Twitter page for your blog, a Facebook page for your blog. In media like Facebook, you can make it straight from your account. With Twitter, Google+, you'll have to create another account for your blog. Get your blog's name out there! Network, and social media is a huge part of that these days. As you get more and more entrenched, more and more ideas will come to you. Maybe there are social networking sites that are very pertinent to your blog. So maybe look into a Digg, a blogger, an Orkut, Quora, or a Foursquare, or a Del.icio.us.
Consider a direct email campaign.
Now this is more for business, and probably less for your blog, so I'd consider it only if there was profit involved. But go to a company like www.verticalresponse.com or any other ... there are thousands of 'em, and if you want, create an e-mail list and mass-mail thousands of people. If you want traffic, that'll help.
Okay, I just invented that term. But I mean, tell all your friends. Send out a mass personal e-mail. Pin something up at your local grocery store. Anything helps!
Hope this helped as well.