In short: no, Google does not penalize
.tv sites by default.
Google would generally treat
.tv domains the same as
.com. They're all seen as generic TLDs (gTLDs), so they are not country-specific by default (technically,
.tv are ccTLDs, but since they're used so widely, Google treats them as gTLDs).
.co.uk is a bit different - it's a ccTLD, so it's country-specific. For those, it's possible that they are shown a bit higher in the local search results in the UK. However, you can achieve the same effect by using Google Webmaster Tools' geotargeting feature. More on that is at http://googlewebmastercentral.blogspot.com/2010/03/working-with-multi-regional-websites.html.
For other search engines, it's probable that
.tv are also seen as gTLDs, but I'm not 100% certain (these things can change over time). Also, in general, unless you can specify geotargeting with them, they will use the server's location for geotargeting of gTLDs - so if you have a
.com website hosted in the UK, it's probable that they will use that as a signal that you are trying to target the UK.