This is a multi-part question:
1) What kind of information can websites collect about someone (someone's computer or device) when they visit your website?
I know we log IP's, and can determine your zipcode, OS, browser type and native language but what else?
2) Is there any information collected and logged by the website that can be used to trace a connection back to a specific computer? Do computers, devices and phones, etc send some kind of unique ID to a website?
I understand that law enforcement may be able to do this, but can this be done by a webmaster?
3) If someone attacks our website like a denial of service attack can we get the identity of or ban a specific computer/device? Or does someone like the FBI have to be enlisted to trace an attack to a specific device? I know we can ban IPs.
I am sure this question has been asked somewhere before but I have had no luck finding an answer. I tried searching for this here and through google but I don't think I know the proper search terms.
Please use laymen's terms as I am not particularly web-savvy.